Many people have never heard of Title IX. Title IX is a federal law passed in 1972 that requires gender equity for boys and girls in every educational program that receives federal funding. Title IX states that, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.”
Most people who know about Title IX think it applies only to sports, but athletics is only one of 10 key areas addressed by the law. These areas are: Access to Higher Education, Career Education, Education for Pregnant and Parenting Students, Employment, Learning Environment, Math and Science, Sexual Harassment, Standardized Testing and Technology.
Sexual harassment in education includes any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior that significantly interferes with a student’s access to educational opportunities. The Supreme Court has confirmed that schools have an obligation under Title IX to prevent and address harassment against students, regardless of whether the harassment is perpetrated by peers, teachers, or other school officials.
Women face various types of employment discrimination in education, including a wage gap and under-representation in traditionally male fields and top positions. For example:
- Less than 35% of school principals are women, although 65% of teachers are women.
- While women are more than 50% of the lecturers and instructors, and a little less than 50% of the assistant professors, they are only 36% of associate professors and only 21% of full professors. And only 2.4% of full professors are women of color.
- Women head only 19% of colleges and universities.
- On average, compared to men, women earn less, hold lower ranking position, and are less likely to have tenure. (source is TitleIX.info )